Brexit Facts

A curated selection of relevant videos and documents about Brexit.
From this page, you can also download research papers and other materials.



The Games of Thrones: Who will sit in 10 Downing Street and rule over United Kingdom?

European Parliamentary elections 27th May

The United Kingdom invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union on 29 March 2017 following a referendum on 23 June 2016 to leave the European Union. As a result, the country was due to leave the EU on 29 March 2019, before the European Parliament elections took place. Nonetheless, on 27 May 2018, it was reported that the UK’s Electoral Commission had set aside £829,000 for its “activities relating to a European Parliamentary election in 2019”. The Commission described the money as a “precautionary measure, so that we have the necessary funds to deliver our functions at a European Parliamentary election, in the unlikely event that they do go ahead.

Party Brexit positions

Party Brexit Position Withdrawal Agreement Position
Ulster Unionist Pro-Brexit Opposes
UKIP Pro-Brexit Opposes
SNP Anti-Brexit Opposes
Sinn Féin Anti-Brexit Supports
Plaid Cymru Anti-Brexit Opposes
Liberal Democrats Anti-Brexit Opposes
Labour Pro-Brexit Opposes
Green (E&W) Anti-Brexit Opposes
Democratic Unionist Pro-Brexit Opposes
Conservative Pro-Brexit Supports
Change UK Anti-Brexit Opposes
Brexit Party Pro-Brexit Opposes


Labour-Tory Brexit talks end without deal

17th May:  Brexit had been due to take place on 29 March – but after MPs voted down the deal Mrs May had negotiated with the bloc three times, the EU gave the UK an extension until 31 October.

This prompted negotiations between the Conservatives and Labour to see if the parties could come to a Brexit agreement, despite differences over issues including membership of a customs union and a further referendum.

Who will be the next Conservative Party leader and UK PM?

16th  May:  Mrs May has promised to set a timetable for leaving Downing Street following a House of Commons vote on her EU Withdrawal Agreement Bill in the week beginning 3 June.

Both Conservative and Labour experience voter apathy at local elections due to impasse over Brexit

2 May: Local elections in 248 English local councils. Conservative councillors were elected to 3,561 seats, a decrease of 1,333 from their previous count. Labour won 2,023 seats, down by 82. The biggest winners were the Liberal Democrats, who gained 704 seats to make a total of 1,351 councillors, and the Green Party, who gained 194 seats for a total of 265 seats. UKIP lost 145 seats, having only 31 councillors elected.

Brexit timeline – next steps

23-26 May:
European Parliamentary elections are held across member states

22 May:
New exist day only if MPs do approve May’s deal

12 April:
New exist day.  The reason the EU chose April 12 is because under law this is the deadline for the UK to decide whether to hold European Parliament elections.

29 March:
Exist Day. Current Brexit date in UK law

27 March
If MPs do not approve the withdrawal deal – “all options will remain open” until 12 April. The UK must propose a way forward before this date for consideration by EU leaders.

Theresa May tells MPs she will leave office if they vote for her plan.

Indicative votes for 8 Brexit options but is it Parliamentary naval-gazing or a way to build consensus to move beyond the deadlock.

23 March
700,00 march on London calling for a second referendum vote to stay in the EU.

22 March
UK Government wrote to EU for approval to Article 50 extension, which was approved until April 12th 2019.

21 March 2019
‘Cancel Brexit’ petition passes 2m signatures on Parliament site. A petition calling for Theresa May to cancel Brexit by revoking Article 50 has passed two million signatures.

21 March
EU submit on UK extension.

14 March
UK lawmakers approve Brexit delay before deadline to leave European Union. Parliament voted by 412-202 in favour of seeking to postpone Britain’s departure for at least three months beyond the current March 29 deadline

Why we’re marching

On 20 October 2018, an estimated 700,000 people marched for a People’s Vote on the final Brexit deal. In a stroke of luck for the campaign, protestors were greeted with a clear sky and temperatures of up to 20 degrees as they descended on Westminster. Led by Sadiq Khan and thousands of young people mobilised by youth groups Our Future, Our Choice and For our Future’s Sake, the day felt like a real turning point for many in attendance, and it was not without impact.

Many broadcasters, journalists and even some MPs expressed surprise at the scale of the demonstration. Since that day, the People’s Vote campaign and its branch-offs have become major players on the political scene. What was previously derided as a London-centric club of Blairite ‘remoaners’ could not be ignored any longer.

But ultimately, it wasn’t enough on its own. Despite the massively increased publicity and willingness of many both in the media and in Westminster to take the campaign seriously; five months later there remains no majority in Parliament for anything. Many sympathetic MPs targeted by People’s Vote campaign in recent weeks remain reluctant to tie their colours to the mast.

By Nathaniel Shaughnessy


May says no to EU proposed deal on the future UK and EU economic relationship and Backstop for Northern Ireland. The EU’s offer to the UK consisted of:

1. UK staying in the European Area and Custom Union. This would mean the UK obeying EU rules and not being able no establish separate trade deals with the rest of the world.

2. Free trade deal that would include Northern Ireland remaining within the custom union to avoid a hard border with the Republic of Ireland (see Good Friday Agreement for more details).

May rejected point 1 because it would fail to deliver on the referendum by staying within European control and without voting rights. Parliament rejected point 2 because it threatens the integrity of the UK union.

May wants from the EU an agreement that sees frictionless free trade of goods that protects the integrity of the UK union in the same way the EU wants to protect its own Union.


Brexit-Theresa May

What happens if we have no deal by March 2019?

The government is planning to publish, in two tranches in late August and early September, about 70 technical notices on how businesses and consumers should prepare for no deal.

  • It means that pretty much all of the current arrangements that join us to the rest of Europe – covering everything from air transport to pharmaceuticals – would simply vanish.
  • The fall in the pound following the original Brexit vote is estimated to have already cost the average household about £400-a-year.
  • In principle, aircraft could be grounded, British road hauliers would be unable to operate to and from the continent and border crossings on both sides of the channel could be gridlocked. You might need a visa for your summer holiday, and many UK-based manufacturers that are part of ‘just-in-time’ supply chains could be forced to halt production.
  • In practice, it’s likely that the UK and the EU would come up with some emergency measures to stop a complete breakdown.
  • The 3.4 million European citizens living in the UK won’t become illegal immigrants overnight and/or UK residents lining in the 27 EU member states.


Theresa May’s Red Lines on Brexit: Chequers Plan July 2019 (see paper attached)

The future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union.

Our proposal is comprehensive. It is ambitious. And it strikes the balance we need – between rights and obligations.

  • It would ensure that we leave the EU, without leaving Europe.
  • It would return accountability over the laws we live by to London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, and end the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice in the UK.
  • It would preserve the UK’s and the EU’s frictionless access to each other’s markets for goods, protecting jobs and livelihoods on both sides, and propose new arrangements for services.
  •  It would meet our shared commitments to Northern Ireland and Ireland through the overall future relationship, in a way that respects the EU’s autonomy without harming the UK’s constitutional and economic integrity.
  • It would end free movement, taking back control of the UK’s borders.
  • It would see the UK step out into the world, driving forward an independent trade policy by striking trade deals with new friends and old allies.
  • It would maintain the shared security capabilities that keep citizens in the UK and the EU safe, as we work in partnership with Member States to tackle crime and terrorism.
  • It would end vast annual contributions to the EU budget, releasing funds for domestic priorities – in particular our long-term plan for the NHS.
  • It would take us out of the Common Agricultural Policy and Common Fisheries Policy, ensuring we can better meet the needs of farming and fishing communities.
  • It would maintain our current high standards on consumer and employment rights and the environment.
  • And it would enable co-operation to continue in areas including science and international development, improving people’s lives within and beyond Europe’s borders.
  • In short, the proposal set out in this White Paper would honour the result of the referendum.
  • It would deliver a principled and practical Brexit that is in our national interest, and the UK’s and the EU’s mutual interest.


Will Theresa May have the last say on Brexit or Parliament? EU Withdrawal Bill

The House of Lords voted in favour of a new amendment for the ‘meaningful vote’, which was passed by 354 votes to 235. Ministers tabled an amendment that would mean a vote only on a neutral motion, which would give MPs no power to halt a cliff-edge Brexit.

Under the new amendment, ministers must update parliament by 21 January 2019 if there is no prospect of a deal with the EU and then have two weeks to return to the House of Commons with a statement on how the government plans to proceed. MPs would then be given a vote on whether to approve the action in statement.